投资与理财——风险的概念和分类

2022-04-10 16:55 理财投资网

投资与理财——风险的概念和分类投资与理财——风险的概念和分类1、风险的概念:一般来说,风险是指在一定条件下和一定时期内可能发生的各种结果的变动程度,或者指由于未来的不确定性而引起的投入本金损失和预期收益减少的可能性。如果某项投资只有一种结果,即结果是确定的,则该项投资就没有风险。1.The concept of risk:Generallyspeaking, risk refers to the degree of change in various results that may occurunder certain conditions and within a certain period of time, or refers to thepossibility of loss of investment principal and reduction of expected returnsdue to future uncertainty. If an investment has only one result, that is, theresult is certain, then the investment has no risk.投资与理财——风险的概念和分类2、对于投资理财的风险,可以从以下四个方面理解:(1)风险是由事件本身的不确定性带来的,具有客观性。例如,投资者投资于国库券,其收益的不确定性较小;如果投资于股票,则收益的不确定性大得多;(2)风险的大小随时间延续而变化,具有期限性。对一项投资的收益,事先预计是不准确的,离到期日越近,预计越准确。随着时间的延续,一项投资的不确定性在缩小,投资完成,其结果也就完全确定;2.The risks of investment and financial management can be understood from thefollowing four aspects:(1)Risk is brought about by the uncertainty of the event itself, and it isobjective. For example, if investors invest in Treasury bills, the uncertaintyof their returns is less; if they invest in stocks, the uncertainty of theirreturns is much greater;(2)The size of the risk changes over time and has a time limit. It is inaccurateto predict the return of an investment in advance. The closer it is to thematurity date, the more accurate the forecast will be. As time goes on, theuncertainty of an investment is shrinking, and when the investment is completed,the result is completely certain;‍投资与理财——风险的概念和分类(3)风险存在于投资活动的各个环节,具有广泛性。由于投资理财活动过程包含诸多环节,每个环节或多或少、或大或小都存在风险,因此风险存在于投资理财的整个过程中;(4)风险可能给投资者带来超出预期的收益,也可能带来超出预期的损失,具有双重性。一般来说,投资者对意外损失的关注程度要比意外收益的关注程度大得多,因此,人们研究风险时侧重减少损失,主要从不利的角度考察风险,经常把风险看成不利事件发生的可能性,这是片面的。(3)Risks exist in all links of investment activities and are extensive. Since theprocess of investment and financial management includes many links, each linkis more or less, large or small, there are risks, so risks exist in the entireprocess of investment and financial management;(4)Risks may bring investors more than expected returns, or they may bring morethan expected losses, which is dual in nature. Generally speaking, investorspay more attention to unexpected losses than unexpected gains. Therefore, whenpeople study risks, they focus on reducing losses. They mainly examine risksfrom an unfavorable perspective. They often regard risks as the occurrence ofunfavorable events. Possibility, this is one-sided.‍投资与理财——风险的概念和分类严格来说,风险和不确定性还是有区别的。风险事前可以知道所有可能的结果,以及每种结果的概率。不确定性是指事前不知道所有的可能结果,或者虽然知道所有可能结果,但是不知道每种结果的概率。Strictlyspeaking, there is a difference between risk and uncertainty. Risks can knowall possible outcomes beforehand, as well as the probability of each outcome.Uncertainty refers to not knowing all possible outcomes beforehand, or knowingall possible outcomes, but not knowing the probability of each outcome.投资与理财——风险的概念和分类3、风险的分类按照风险的性质,投资理财风险可以划分为系统性风险和非系统性风险。(1)系统性风险。系统性风险是指由于某种全局性的共同因素引起的投资收益的可能变动,这种因素以同样的方式对所有证券的收益产生影响。系统风险主要包括政策风险、经济周期风险、利率风险和购买力风险;(2)非系统性风险。非系统性风险是指只对某个行业或者某个公司的证券产生影响的风险,通常由某一特殊因素引起,与整个证券市场的价格不存在系统、全面的联系,而只对个别或少数证券的收益产生影响。非系统性风险包括信用风险、经营风险和财务风险。3.Classification of risksAccordingto the nature of risks, investment and financial management risks can bedivided into systemic risks and non-systematic risks.(1)Systemic risk. Systemic risk refers to the possible changes in investmentincome caused by a certain overall common factor, which affects the income ofall securities in the same way. System risk mainly includes policy risk,economic cycle risk, interest rate risk and purchasing power risk;(2)Non-systematic risks. Non-systematic risk refers to the risk that only affectsthe securities of a certain industry or a certain company. It is usually causedby a certain special factor. There is no systematic and comprehensiverelationship with the price of the entire securities market. The returns ofsecurities have an impact. Non-systematic risks include credit risk, operatingrisk and financial risk.‍投资与理财——风险的概念和分类本文由learningyard新学苑原创,如有侵权请联系沟通~素材来源于《投资与理财》——第3版 电子工业出版社图片来源于百度翻译来源于谷歌翻译‍
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